McEneaney was born in Germany. McEneaney attended the University of the Arts and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (PAFA), both in Philadelphia. In addition to her studio practice, McEneaney is also the co-founder of Friends of the Rail Park, a nonprofit organization dedicated to creating a park and recreation path along the historic elevated Reading Viaduct and City Branch rail line in Philadelphia. Her work is in many public and private collections, including the Philadelphia Museum of Art, PAFA, Woodmere Art Museum, the Neuberger Museum of Art at SUNY-Purchase, and the Rhode Island School of Design. McEneaney has received numerous awards, including an Anonymous Was a Woman grant, a Joan Mitchell Foundation grant, a Pew Fellowship in the Arts, and residencies at the Joan Mitchell Center, the Chinati Foundation, the Fundación Valparaíso, the MacDowell Colony, and Yaddo. She is represented by the Tibor de Nagy Gallery in New York and Locks Gallery in Philadelphia.